Independent Science on Public Health Concerns Regarding Synthetic Turf

I. Crumb Rubber Chemicals

A. 1,3 Butadiene

B. Arsenic

C. Arylamines

D. Benzene

E. Benzothiazoles

F. Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)

G. Cadmium

H. Carbon Black

I. Lead

J. Manganese

K. Mercury

L. Phenols

M. Phthalates

N. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

O. Styrene

P. Toluidine

Q. Trichloroethylene (TCE)

II. Bioaccessibility

III. Heat Effects

IV. Injuries

V. Flame Retardants

VI. Disinfectants and Sanitizers

I. Crumb Rubber Chemicals
A. 1,3 Butadieneback to top
1. "Development of a unit risk factor for 1, 3‐butadiene based on an updated carcinogenic toxicity assessment." Grant, RL, et al. Risk analysis 29:12 (2009) 1726-1742.
2. "Risk of leukemia in relation to exposure to ambient air toxics in pregnancy and early childhood." Heck, JE, et al. International journal of hygiene and environmental health 217:6 (2014) 662-668.
3. "Epigenetic alterations in liver of C57BL/6J mice after short-term inhalational exposure to 1, 3-butadiene." Koturbash, I, et al. Environmental health perspectives 119:5 (2011) 635.
4. "Childhood lymphohematopoietic cancer incidence and hazardous air pollutants in southeast Texas, 1995–2004." Whitworth, KW, E Symanski and AL Coker. Environmental health perspectives 116:11 (2008) 1576.
5. "Health risk assessment of personal inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds in Tianjin, China." Zhou, J, et al. Science of the total environment 409:3 (2011) 452-459.
B. Arsenicback to top
1. "Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh." Chen, Y, et al. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 239:2 (2009) 184-192.
2. "Low-dose arsenic compromises the immune response to influenza A infection in vivo." Kozul, CD, et al. Environmental health perspectives 117:9 (2009) 1441.
3. "Association between exposure to low to moderate arsenic levels and incident cardiovascular disease: A prospective cohort study." Moon, KA., et al. Annals of internal medicine 159:10 (2013) 649-659.
4. "The broad scope of health effects from chronic arsenic exposure: update on a worldwide public health problem." Naujokas, MF, et al. Environmental health perspectives 121:3 (2013) 295.
5. "Long-term low-level arsenic exposure is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning: a Project FRONTIER study." O’Bryant, SE, et al. International journal of environmental research and public health 8:3 (2011) 861-874.
6. "Arsenic exposure and motor function among children in Bangladesh." Parvez, F, et al. Environmental health perspectives 119:11 (2011) 1665.
7. "Increased lung cancer risks are similar whether arsenic is ingested or inhaled." Smith, AH, et al. Journal of exposure science and environmental epidemiology 19:4 (2009) 343-348.
8. "Arsenic exposure transforms human epithelial stem/progenitor cells into a cancer stem-like phenotype." Tokar, EJ, BA Diwan and MP Waalkes. Environmental health perspectives 118:1 (2010) 108.
9. "Health effects of early life exposure to arsenic." Vahter, Marie. Basic and clinical pharmacology & toxicology 102:2 (2008) 204-211.
10. "Kidney cancer mortality: fifty-year latency patterns related to arsenic exposure." Yuan, Yan, et al. Epidemiology 21:1 (2010) 103-108.
C. Arylaminesback to top
1. "Cancer incidence and mortality among workers exposed to benzidine." Brown, SC, R Alberts, and M Schoenberg. American journal of industrial medicine 54:4 (2011) 300-306.
2. "Cancer mortality and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and inhalable aerosols in rubber tire manufacturing in Poland." de Vocht, F, et al. Cancer epidemiology 33:2 (2009) 94-102.
3. "Establishing a total allowable concentration of o-toluidine in drinking water incorporating early lifestage exposure and susceptibility." English, JC, et al. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology 64:2 (2012) 269-284.
4. "Biomonitoring of human exposure to arylamines." Richter, E. Frontiers in bio-science 7 (2015) 222-238.
5. "Elevated 4-aminobiphenyl and 2, 6-dimethylaniline hemoglobin adducts and increased risk of bladder cancer among lifelong nonsmokers—The Shanghai Bladder Cancer Study." Tao, L, et al. Cancer epidemiology and prevention biomarkers 22:5 (2013) 937-945.
D. Benzeneback to top
1. "Urinary biomarkers of exposure and of oxidative damage in children exposed to low airborne concentrations of benzene." Andreoli, R, et al. Environmental research 142 (2015) 264-272.
2. "Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: a global concern." Bahadar, H, S Mostafalou, and M Abdollahi. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 276:2 (2014) 83-94.
3. "Acute childhood leukaemia and residence next to petrol stations and automotive repair garages: the ESCALE study (SFCE)." Brosselin, P, et al. Occupational and environmental medicine 66:9 (2009) 598-606.
4. "Airways changes related to air pollution exposure in wheezing children." Martins, PC, et al. European respiratory journal 39:2 (2012) 246-253.
5. "Global gene expression profiling of a population exposed to a range of benzene levels." McHale, CM, et al. Environmental health perspectives 119:5 (2011) 628.
6. "Effects of toluene and benzene air mixtures on human lung cells (A549)." Pariselli, F, et al. Experimental and toxicologic pathology 61:4 (2009) 381-386.
7. "Exposure to benzene in various susceptible populations: co-exposures to 1, 3-butadiene and PAHs and implications for carcinogenic risk." Ruchirawat, M, P Navasumrit, and D Settachan. Chemico-biological interactions 184:1 (2010) 67-76.
8. "Leukemia and benzene." Snyder, R. International journal of environmental research and public health 9:8 (2012) 2875-2893.
9. "Benzene exposure near the US permissible limit is associated with sperm aneuploidy." Xing, C, et al. Environmental health perspectives 118:6 (2010) 833.
E. Benzothiazolesback to top
1. "Tire tread wear particles in ambient air--a previously unknown source of human exposure to the biocide 2-mercaptobenzothiazole." Avagyan, R, et al. Environmental science and pollution research international 21:19 (2014) 11580-6.
2. "Characterization of substances released from crumb rubber material used on artificial turf fields." Li, X, et al. Chemosphere 80:3 (2010) 279-285.
3. "Benzothiazoles in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure." Wan, Y, J Xue, and K Kannan. Journal of hazardous materials 311 (2016) 37-42.
4. “Common and consumer products contain activators of the aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor.” Zhao, B, et al. PLoS One 8:2 (2013).
F. Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA)back to top
1. "Environmental factors and allergic diseases." Jenerowicz, D, et al. Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine 19:3 (2012).
2. "In vitro study of calf thymus DNA interaction with butylated hydroxyanisole." Kashanian, S, and JEN Dolatabadi. DNA and cell biology 28:10 (2009) 535-540.
3. "Evaluation of the possible endocrine disruptive effect of butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate in immature female rats." Pop, A, et al. Farmacia 61:1 (2013) 202-211.
4. "Cytotoxicity and DNA fragmentation properties of butylated hydroxyanisole." Vandghanooni, S, et al. DNA and cell biology 32:3 (2013) 98-103.
G. Cadmiumback to top
1. "Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cohort." Adams, SV, MN Passarelli, and PA Newcomb. Occupational environmental medicine 69:2 (2012) 153-156.
2. "Low level exposure to cadmium increases the risk of chronic kidney disease: analysis of the NHANES 1999-2006." Ferraro, PM, et al. BMC public health 10:1 (2010) 304.
3. "Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk." Gallagher, CM, JJ Chen, and JS Kovach. Aging (Albany NY) 2:11 (2010) 804.
4. "Cadmium exposure and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort: the strong heart study." García-Esquinas, E, et al. Environmental health perspectives 122:4 (2014) 363.
5. "Low-level environmental cadmium exposure is associated with DNA hypomethylation in Argentinean women." Hossain, MB, et al. Environmental health perspectives 120:6 (2012) 879.
6. "Effects of long-term low-dose cadmium exposure on genomic DNA methylation in human embryo lung fibroblast cells." Jiang, G, et al. Toxicology 244:1 (2008) 49-55.
7. "Heavy metal poisoning: the effects of cadmium on the kidney." Johri, N, G Jacquillet, and R Unwin. Biometals 23:5 (2010) 783-792.
8. "Early-life cadmium exposure and child development in 5-year-old girls and boys: a cohort study in rural Bangladesh." Kippler, M, et al. Environmental health perspectives 120:10 (2012) 1462.
9. "Cadmium exposure in the population: from health risks to strategies of prevention." Nawrot, TS, et al. Biometals 23:5 (2010) 769-782.
10. "Cadmium exposure in association with history of stroke and heart failure." Peters, JL, et al. Environmental research 2110:2 (2010) 199-206.
11. "Cadmium exposure and neuropsychological development in school children in southwestern Spain." Rodríguez-Barranco, M, et al. Environmental research 134 (2014) 66-73.
12. "Cadmium, environmental exposure, and health outcomes." Satarug, S et al. Environmental health perspectives 118 (2010) 182-190.
13. "Cadmium exposure and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the US general population." Tellez-Plaza, M, et al. Environmental health perspectives 120:7 (2012) 1017.
H. Carbon Blackback to top
1. "Carbon black nanoparticle instillation induces sustained inflammation and genotoxicity in mouse lung and liver." Bourdon, JA, et al. Particle and fibre toxicology 9:1 (2012).
2. "Hepatic and pulmonary toxicogenomic profiles in mice intratracheally instilled with carbon black nanoparticles reveal pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response, and alterations in lipid homeostasis." Bourdon, JA, et al. Toxicological sciences 127:2 (2012) 474-484.
3. "Carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles elicit distinct apoptotic pathways in bronchial epithelial cells." Hussain, S, et al. Particle and fibre toxicology 7:1 (2010).
4. "Mutation spectrum in FE1‐MUTA(TM) Mouse lung epithelial cells exposed to nanoparticulate carbon black." Jacobsen, NR, et al. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis 52:4 (2011) 331-337.
5. "Symptoms of respiratory disease and lung functional impairment associated with occupational inhalation exposure to carbon black dust." Neghab, M, MH Mohraz, and J Hassanzadeh. Journal of occupational health 53:6 (2011) 432-438.
6. "Induction of inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis by carbon black nanoparticles." Reisetter, AC, et al. Journal of biological chemistry 286.24 (2011) 21844-21852.
7. "Inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles aggravates pulmonary inflammation in mice." Saputra, D, et al. Toxicological research 30:2 (2014) 83.
8. "Carbon black nanoparticles and vascular dysfunction in cultured endothelial cells and artery segments." Vesterdal, LK, et al. Toxicology letters 214:1 (2012) 19-26.
9. "Reduced pulmonary function and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in nanoscale carbon black-exposed workers." Zhang, R, et al. Particle and fibre toxicology 11:1 (2014) 73.
I. Leadback to top
1. “CDC updates guidelines for children’s lead exposure.” Environmental health perspectives 120:7 (2012). Betts, KS. Environmental health perspectives 120:7 (2012).
2. “Lead poisoning in children.” Dapul, H and D Laraque. Advances in pediatrics 61 (2014) 313-333.
3. “The impact of low-level lead toxicity on school performance among children in the Chicago Public Schools: a population-based retrospective cohort study.” Evens, A, et al. Environmental health 14 (2015).
4. “Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity.” Grandjean, P and P Landrigan. The Lancet neurology 13:3 (2014) 330-338.
5. “Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children – the current concepts of risk assessment.” Jakubowski, M. International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health 24:1 (2011) 1-7.
6. “Blood lead concentrations < 10 μg/dL and child intelligence at 6 years of age.” Jusko, TA, et al. Environmental health perspectives 116:2 (2008) 243-248.
7. “Lead exposures in U.S. children, 2008: implications for prevention.” Levin, R, et al. Environmental health perspectives 116:10 (2008) 1285–1293.
8. “Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity.” Mason, LH, et al. Biomed research international 2014.
9. “Evaluating and regulating lead in synthetic turf.” Van Ulirsch, G, et al. Environmental health perspectives 118:10 (2010) 1345–1349.
J. Manganeseback to top
1. “Manganese neurotoxicity: Lessons learned from longitudinal studies in nonhuman primates.” Burton NC and TR Guilarte. Environmental health perspectives 117:3 (2009) 325-332.
2. “Manganese neurotoxicity: new perspectives from behavioral, neuroimaging, and neuropathological studies in humans and non-human primates.” Guilarte, TR. Front aging neuroscience 5 (2013).
3. “Manganese neurotoxicity: a focus on glutamate transporters.” Karki, P, et al. Annals of occupational and environmental medicine 25 (2013).
4. “Mechanisms of lead and manganese neurotoxicity.” Neala, A and TR Guilarte. Toxicology research 2:2 (2013) 99–114.
K. Mercuryback to top
1. “Mercury toxicity and treatment: A review of the literature.” Bernhoft, RA. Journal of environmental and public health (2012).
2. “Mercury exposure and children's health.” Bose-O’Reilly, S, et al. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care 40:8 (2010) 186-215.
3. "Testicular toxicity in mercuric chloride treated rats: association with oxidative stress.” Boujbiha, MA, et al. Reproductive toxicology 28:1 (2009) 81-89.
4. “Mercury and human genotoxicity: critical considerations and possible molecular mechanisms.” Crespo-Lopez, ME, et al. Pharmacological research 60:4 (2009) 212-220.
5. “Is low-level environmental mercury exposure of concern to human health?” Holmes, P, et al. Science of the total environment 408:2 (2009) 171-182.
6. “Human exposure and health effects of inorganic and elemental mercury.” Park, J and W Zheng. Journal of preventive medicine & public health 45:6 (2012) 344–352.
7. “Environmental mercury and its toxic effects.” Rice, KM, et al. Journal of preventive medicine & public health 47:2 (2014) 74-83.
L. Phenolsback to top
1. “Histopathologic effects of maternal 4-tert-octylphenol exposure on liver, kidney and spleen of rats at adulthood.” Barlas, N and M Aydofan. Archives of toxicology 83:4 (2009) 341-349.
2. “Exposure of the U.S. population to bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol: 2003–2004.” Calafat, AM, et al. Environmental health perspectives 116:1 (2008) 39-44.
3. “Embryonic exposure to octylphenol induces changes in testosterone levels and disrupts reproductive efficiency in rats at their adulthood.” Sainath, SB, et al. Food and chemical toxicology 49:4 (2011) 983-990.
4. “An in vivo assessment of the genotoxic potential of bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-octylphenol in rats.” Ulutas, OK, et al. Archives of toxicology 85 (2011) 995-1001.
5. “Hepatic and renal functions in growing mal rats after bisphenol A and octylphenol exposure.” Yildiz, N. and N Barlas. Human and experimental technology 32:7 (2013) 675-686.
M. Phthalatesback to top
1. "Childhood exposure to phthalates: associations with thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor I, and growth." Boas, Malene, et al. Environmental health perspectives 118:10 (2010).
2. "Phthalate exposure and asthma in children." Bornehag, CG, and E Nanberg. International journal of andrology 33:2 (2010) 333-345.
3. "Relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and the intelligence of school-age children." Cho, S, et al. Environmental health perspectives 118:7 (2010) 1027.
4. "Association between phthalates and attention deficit disorder and learning disability in US children, 6–15 years." Chopra, V, et al. Environmental research 128 (2014) 64-69.
5. "Phthalate exposure in girls during early puberty." Chou, Y, et al. Journal of pediatric endocrinology and metabolism 22:1 (2009) 69-78.
6. "Phthalates exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in school-age children." Kim, B, et al. Biological psychiatry 66:10 (2009) 958-963.
7. "Exposure to phthalates in 5–6 years old primary school starters in Germany—a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment." Koch, HM, et al. International journal of hygiene and environmental health 214:3 (2011) 188-195.
N. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)back to top
1. "Exposures to particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidative stress in schoolchildren." Bae, S, et al. Environmental health perspectives 118:4 (2010) 579.
2. "Prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and children’s intelligence at 5 years of age in a prospective cohort study in Poland." Edwards, SC, et al. Environmental health perspectives 118:9 (2010).
3. "Air pollution in relation to US cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons." Grant, William B. Anticancer research 29:9 (2009) 3537-3545.
4. "Assessment of benzo (a) pyrene-equivalent carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of residential indoor versus outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposing young children in New York City." Jung, KH, et al. International journal of environmental research and public health 7.5 (2010) 1889-1900.
5. "A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects." Kim, K, et al. Environment international 60 (2013) 71-80.
6. "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons–aromatic DNA adducts in cord blood and behavior scores in New York City children." Perera, FP, et al. Environmental health perspectives 119:8 (2011) 1176.
O. Styreneback to top
1. "Indicators of oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse whole lung and Clara cells following exposure to styrene and its metabolites." Harvilchuck, JA, et al. Toxicology 264:3 (2009) 171-178.
2. "Styrene exposure and risk of cancer." Huff, J, and PF Infante. Mutagenesis 26:5 (2011): 583-584.
3. “The aromatic volatile organic compounds toluene, benzene and styrene induce COX-2 and prostaglandins in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and p38 MAPK activation.” Mögel, I, et al. Toxicology 289:1 (2011) 28-37.
4. " Styrene induces an inflammatory response in human lung epithelial cells via oxidative stress and NF-κB activation.” Roder-Stolinkis, C, et al. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 231:2 (2008) 241-247.
5. "Genetic effects and biotoxicity monitoring of occupational styrene exposure." Rueff, J, et al. Clinica chimica acta 399.1 (2009) 8-23.
6. “Pulmonary function and oxidative stress in workers exposed to styrene in plastic factory: Occupational hazards in styrene-exposed plastic factory workers.” Sati, PC. Human and experimental toxicology 30:11 (2011) 1743-1750.
7. "Low level occupational exposure to styrene: its effects on DNA damage and DNA repair." Wongvijitsuk, S, et al. International journal of hygiene and environmental health 214.2 (2011) 127-137.
P. Toluidineback to top
1. “DNA adducts of ortho-toluidine in human bladder.” Böhm, F, et al. Biomarkers 16:2 (2011) 120-128.
2. "Bladder cancer incidence among workers exposed to o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant." Carreón, T, et al. Occupational Environmental Medicine (2013).
3. "Bladder cancer risks in workers manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry." Sorahan, Tom. Occupational medicine 58:7 (2008) 496-501.
Q. Trichloroethyleneback to top
1. "Developmental exposure to trichloroethylene promotes CD4+ T cell differentiation and hyperactivity in association with oxidative stress and neurobehavioral deficits in MRL+/+ mice." Blossom, SJ, et al. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 231:3 (2008) 344-353.
2. "Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally." Blossom, SJ, et al. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 269:3 (2013) 263-269.
3. "Chronic exposure to trichloroethene causes early onset of SLE-like disease in female MRL+/+ mice." Cai, P, et al. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 228:1 (2008) 68-75.
4. "Human health effects of trichloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues." Chiu, WA, et al. Environmental health perspectives 121:3 (2013) 303.
5. "Evidence of autoimmune-related effects of trichloroethylene exposure from studies in mice and humans." Cooper, GS, et al. Environmental health perspectives 117:5 (2009) 696.
6. “Possible involvement of oxidative stress in trichloroethylene-induced genotoxicity in human HepG2 cells.” Hu, C, et al. Mutation research/genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis 29:1 (2008) 88–94.
7. “Trichloroethylene-induced gene expression and DNA methylation changes in B6C3F1 mouse liver.” Jiang, Y, et al. PLoS ONE 9:12 (2014).
8. “Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers: a meta-analysis.” Karami S, et al. Occupational and environmental medicine 70 (2013) 591-599.
9. “Effect of trichloroethylene (TCE) toxicity on the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane and oxidative stress in kidney and other rat tissues.” Khan, S, et al. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47:7 (2009) 1562-1568.
10. “Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene is associated with a decline in lymphocyte subsets and soluble CD27 and CD30 markers.” Lan, Q, et al. Carcinogenesis 31:9 (2010) 1592–1596.
11. “Trichloroethylene biotransformation and its role in mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and target organ toxicity.” Lash, LH, et al. Mutation research/reviews in mutation research 762 (2014) 22–36.
12. "A case–control study of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and non-Hodgkin lymphoma." Purdue, MP, et al. Environmental health perspectives 119:2 (2011) 232.
13. "Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard." Rusyn, I, et al. Pharmacology & therapeutics 141:1 (2014) 55-68.
14. "Trichloroethylene and cancer: systematic and quantitative review of epidemiologic evidence for identifying hazards." Siegel Scott, C, and J Jinot. International journal of environmental research and public health 8:11 (2011) 4238-4271.
 
II. Bioaccessibilityback to top
1. "Health risk assessment of lead ingestion exposure by particle sizes in crumb rubber on artificial turf considering bioavailability." Kim, S, et al. Environmental health and technology 27: (2012) 10.
2. "Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals from rubber crumb in synthetic turf fields: preliminary hazard assessment for athletes." Marsili, L, et al. Environmental and analytical toxicology 5:2 (2015).
3. "Bioaccessibility and risk of exposure to metals and SVOCs in artificial turf field fill materials and fibers." Pavilonis, BT, et al. Risk analysis 44: (2014) 44-55.
4. "Hazardous chemicals in synthetic turf materials and their bioaccessibility in digestive fluids." Zhang, J, et al. Journal of exposure science and environmental epidemiology 18: (2008) 600-607.
 
III. Heat Effectsback to top
1. "Policy Statement – Climatic Heat Stress and Exercising Children and Adolescents." American Academy of Pediatrics: Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness and Council on School Health. Pediatrics 128:3 (2011) 741-747.
2. "Temperature amelioration of synthetic turf surfaces through irrigation." McNitt, AS, et al. The Pennsylvania State University. Acta hort 783: (2008) 573-582.
3. "Synthetic turf heat evaluation – progress report." Penn State's Center for Sports Surface Research. (2012).
4. "Models for predicting surface temperatures on synthetic playing surfaces." Thoms, AW, et al. Procedia engineering 72: (2014) 895-900.
5. "Synthetic turf heat studies." Williams, C, and G Pulley. Brigham Young University (2006).
 
IV. Injuriesback to top
1. "Football injuries on synthetic turf fields." Akkaya, S, et al. Joint diseases and related surgery 69:1 (2012) 35-40.
2. "Incidence of injury among adolescent soccer players: a comparative study of artificial and natural grass turfs." Aoki, H, et al. Clinical journal of sport medicine 20:1 (2010).
3. "Risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in athletes on synthetic playing surfaces: A systematic review." Balazs, GC, et al. American journal of sports medicine 43:7 (2014) 1798-1804.
4. "A prospective analysis of the injury incidence of young male professional football players on artificial turf." Bainco, A, et al. Asian journal of sports medicine 7:1 (2016).
5. "The effect of playing surface on injury rate: a review of the current literature." Dragoo, JL, and HJ Braun. Sports medicine 40:11 (2010) 981-990.
6. "Synthetic playing surfaces and athlete health." Drakos, M, et al. Journal of the American academy of orthopaedic surgeons 21:5: (2013) 293-302.
7. "Comparison of injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass by male and female elite football players." Ekstrand, J, et al. Scandanavian journal of medicine and science in sports 21: (2011) 824-832.
8. "Effect of changes in artificial turf on sports injuries in male university soccer players." Fujitaka, K, et al. The orthopaedic journal of sports medicine 5:8 (2017).
9. "Incidence and risk factors for turf toe injuries in intercollegiate football: data from the national collegiate athletic association injury surveillance system." George, E, et al. Foot & ankle international 35:2 (2014) 108-115.
10. "Safety of third-generation artificial turf in male elite professional soccer players in Italian major league." Lanzetti, RM, et al. Scandanavian journal of medicine and science in sports 27: (2017) 435-439.
11. "The influence of playing surface on injury risk in Italian elite rugby players." Lanzetti, RM, et al. Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal 7:1 (2017) 180-185.
12. "Incidence, mechanisms, and severity of match-related collegiate women's soccer injuries on FieldTurf and natural grass surfaces: A 5-year prospective study." Meyers, MC. The American journal of sports medicine 41:10 (2013) 2409-2420.
13. "Incidence, mechanisms, and severity of match-related collegiate men's soccer injuries on FieldTurf and natural grass surfaces: A 6-Year prospective study." Meyers, MC. The American journal of sports medicine 45:3 (2016) 708-718.
14. "The perceptions of professional soccer players on the risk and injury from competition and training on natural turf grass and 3rd generation artificial turf." Poulos, C, et al. BMC sports science, medicine and rehabilitation 6:11: (2014).
15. "Influence of cleats-surface interaction on the performance and risk of injury in soccer: a systemic review." Silva, DCF, et al. Applied bionics and biomechanics (2017).
16. "Natural turf surfaces: the case for continued research." Stiles, VH, et al. Sports medicine 39:1 (2009) 65-84.
17. "A review of synthetic playing surfaces, the shoe-surface interface, and lower extremity injuries in athletes." Taylor, SA, et al. The physician and sports medicine 40:4 (2012) 66-72.
18. "Understanding the acute skin injury mechanism caused by player-surface contact during soccer: A survey and systemic review." van den Eijnede, Wilbert AJ, et al. The orthopaedic journal of sports medicine 2:5 (2014).
19. "A review of football injuries on third and fourth generation artificial turfs compared with natural turf." Williams, S, et al. Sports medicine 41:11 (2011) 903-923.
20. "Playing field issues in sports medicine." Wright, JM and David Webner. Current sports medicine reports 9:3 (2010) 129-133.
 
V. Flame Retardants (PBDEs)back to top
1. "PBDE flame retardants, thyroid disease, and menopausal status in U.S. women." Allen, JG, et al. Environmental health perspectives 15:1 (2016) 60.
2. "Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and thyroid hormone during pregnancy." Chevrier, J, et al. Environmental health perspectives 118:10 (2010) 1444-1449.
3. "In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures and neurodevelopment in the CHAMACOS study." Eskenazi, B, et al. Environmental health perspectives 121:5 (2013) 257-262.
4. "Developmental exposure to a commercial PBDE mixture: effects on protein networks in the cerebellum and hippocampus of rats." Kodavanti, PR, et al. Environmental health perspectives 125:5 (2015) 428-436.
5. "Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may influence birth weight among infants in a Swedish cohort with background exposure: a cross-sectional study." Lingnell, S, et al. Environmental health perspectives 12:44 (2013).
6. "Prenatal and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and attention and executive function at 9-12 years of age." Sagiv, SK, et al. Neurotoxicology and teratology 52 (2015) 151-161.
7. "Prenatal PBDE and PCB exposures and reading, cognition, and externalizing behavior in children." Zhang, H, et al. Environmental Health Perspectives 125:4 (2017) 746-752.
8. "Correlation between prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl eithers (PBDEs) and infant birth outcomes: a meta-analysis and an experimental study." Zhao, X, et al. International journal of environmental research and public health 17:3 (2017).
 
VI. Disinfectants and Sanitizersback to top
1. "Association between cleaning-related chemicals and work-related asthma and asthma symptoms among healthcare professionals." Arif, AA and GL Delclos. Occupational and environmental medicine 69:1 (2012) 35-40.
2. "Developmental neurotoxicity of different pesticides in PC-12 cells in vitro." Christen, V, et al. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 325 (2017) 25-36.
3. "Asthma among workers in healthcare settings: role of disinfection with quaternary ammonium compounds." Gonzalez, M, et al. Clinical and experimental allergy 44:3 (2014) 393-406.
4. "Ambient and dosed exposure to quaternary ammonium disinfectants causes neural tube defects in rodents." Hrubec, TC, et al. Birth defects research 109:14 (2017) 1166-1178.
5. "Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice." Melin, VE, et al. Reproductive toxicology 50 (2014) 163-170.
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Compilation prepared by Grassroots Environmental Education, Inc., 52 Main Street, Port Washington, New York 11050. www.grassrootsinfo.org